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Reserves

 

Boron Reserve

Boron is an element commonly found on soil, rocks and water. The boron content of the soil is approximately 10-20 ppm, but it is found in high concentrations in the western regions of the USA and from the Mediterranean to Kazakhstan. It is between 0.5-9.6 ppm in sea water and 0.01-1.5 ppm in fresh water.

A high concentration of boron deposits in economic size, coupled with the compounds with the boron oxygen, mostly found in the areas of rather Turkey and US being dry with high volcanic and hydrothermal activity.

The important boron deposits of the world concentrated in Turkey, Russia and the United States and the global commercial boron reserves are collected in 4 regions. They are "Mojave Desert", located in the south of the US State of California, "And Aqueduct" in South America", "South-Central Asian Orogenic Belt" where Turkey also locates and East Russia. The distribution of important boron reserves in the world is as follows;

Boron (Kramer) Deposits, North America: It is operated by the company Rio Tinto by the open pit mining method.

Searles Lake Deposit, California: It is operated by the firm Searles Valley Minerals through solution mining.

Fort Cady Calcium Boron Deposit, Mojave Desert, California: The deposit, operated by Fort Cady Minerals by the solution mining method, is difficult and highly costy to extract, process because it is low grade and deep (~ 410 meters).

Death Valley Boron Deposits / Billie Mine: The deposit, which is operated by the underground mine operation method, contains colemanite, ulexite and propertite.

Serbia: Operating rights of the Jadar Boron Basin belong to the firm titled Rio Tinto. The deposit consists of colemanite and jadar minerals. The most abundant boron minerals are colemanite, ulexite and powlit (cation borosilicatehydroxide-Ca2B5SiO9 (OH) 5). The firm Ultra Lithium (Canada) also searches for lithium and boron in the Jadar basin.

South American Boron Deposits: The most important feature of the deposits is that they are spread over very large areas as small reserves. These deposits locate in the highlands of the Andes and the working season is short. In addition, the grades of these mines are generally low. Ulexite mineral (sodium calcium borate) is a major part of South American reserves.

Tincalayu, Argentina: The deposit has tincal, ulexite, colemanite and kernite reserves. The site is operated by the Australian firm Orocobre Ltd. The company has borax decahydrate and boric acid plants.

Salar de Olaroz, Argentina: The deposit locates in an area of 3,900 m above sea level and operated by Orocobre Ltd. Lithium, boron and potassium sources are present in the basin. Production was started at the pilot plant to evaluate lithium.

Salar de Surire Boron Ore Deposit, Chile: It is one of the largest ulexite deposits in the world at Arica (Chile) at an altitude of 4,050 m above sea level. The deposit is operated by QuiBorax.

Salar de UIyuni, Bolivia: Ulexite and lithium reserves are present in the largest water-drawn salt lake. Calcined ulexite is produced by Minerex Sa.

Salar de Carcote and Salar de Ascotan, Northern Chile: Salar de Carcote and Salar de Ascotan deposits operated by SQM Salar have 7 million tons of ulexite reserves on B2O3 basis.

Asian Boron Deposits: Boron reserves in Asian countries generally consist of magnesium borate (Askarit) and, in limited regions, of tincal and borosilicate. These ores are generally of low grade and have technological difficulties in refined product production. Ascharite ore is mainly found in China and Kazakhstan. Although the natural boron deposits in China are large, more than 90% of the deposits have low grade. Most of China's boron deposits are located in Liaoning and Jilin regions.

Qinghai (China) boron deposits are similar to boron deposits in South America because they are 4,000 m high and contain interrelated mineral groups (boron, lithium and potassium).

Russia Boron Deposits: The most important boron deposit in Russia is the Dalnegorsk (Russia) deposit, which is one of the three important datolite boron deposits in the world. This boron deposit is operated by Russian Bor.

Distribution of World Boron Reserves (2017)
 

COUNTRY

TOTAL RESERVES

(Thousand tonnes B2O3)

TOTAL RESERVES

(% B2O3)

Turkey

948.712

73,4

Russi

100.000

7,7

USA

80.000

6,2

Chile

41.000

3,2

China

36.000

2,8

Peru

22.000

1,7

Serbia

21.000

1,6

Bolivia

19.000

1,5

Kazakhstan

15.000

1,2

Argentina

9.000

0,7

TOTAL

1.310.300

100,0

 

The boron deposits known in Turkey especially locate in Kırka / Eskişehir, Bigadiç / Balıkesir, Kestelek / Bursa and Emet / Kütahya.

The most abundant boron ores in terms of reserve in Turkey are tinkal (na2o.2b2o3.10h2o) and colemanite (2cao.3b2o3.5h2o). The important tincal deposits in Turkey are Kırka colemanite deposits found in the locality of Emet and Bigadiç. In addition, there is a small amount of ulexite reserves in Bigadiç and occasionally obtained as a ulexite by-product in Kestelek. Reserve amounts are given below on mineral basis:
 

Distribution of Turkey Boron Reserves (on a mineral basis-2017)

REGION

ORE TYPE

TOTAL (TONS)

EMET 

Colemanite-Ulexit-Probertite

1.811.072.520

KIRKA

Tincal

824.720.950

BİGADİÇ 

Colemanite-Ulexit

628.350.480

KESTELEK 

Colemanite

5.254.920

 

TOTAL

3.269.398.870

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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